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2020-12-30 14:23:29| 来源:江苏中公韦德体育注册网


Section I Use of English


Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

It’s not difficult to set targets for staff. It is much harder,        1       , to understand their negative consequences. Most work-related behaviors have multiple components.           2      one and the others become distorted.

Travel on a London bus and you’ll           3      see how this works with drivers. Watch people get on and show their tickets. Are they carefully inspected? Never. Do people get on without paying? Of course! Are there inspectors to              that people have paid? Possibly, but very few. And people who run for the bus? They are       5      . How about jumping lights? Buses do so almost as frequently as cyclists.

Why? Because the target is        6        . People complained that buses were late and infrequent.        7       , the number of buses and bus lanes were increased, and drivers were     8      or punished according to the time they took. And drivers hit these targets. But they         9       hit cyclists. If the target was changed to        10         , you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing. If the criterion changed to safety, you would get more             11       drivers who obeyed traffic laws. But both these criteria would be at the expense of time.

There is another     12      : people became immensely inventive in hitting targets. Have you      13      that you can leave on a flight an hour late but still arrive on time? Tailwinds? Of course not! Airlines have simply changed the time a   14   韦德体育注册网 is meant to take. A one-hour flight is now ballad as a two-hour flight.

The     15     of the story is simple. Most jobs are multidimensional, with multiple criteria. Choose one criterion and you may well     16     others. Everything can be done faster and made cheaper, but there is a     17     . Setting targets can and does have unforeseen negative consequences.

This is not an argument against target-setting. But it is an argument for exploring consequences first. All good targets should have multiple criteria     18     critical factors such as time, money, quality and customer feedback. The trick is not only to     19     just one or even two dimensions of the objective, but also to understand how to help people better     20     the objective.

韦德体育注册网1. [A] therefore [B] however [C] again [D] moreover

2. [A] Emphasize [B] Identify [C] Assess [D] Explain

韦德体育注册网3. [A] nearly [B] curiously [C] eagerly [D] quickly

4. [A] claim [B] prove [C] check [D] recall

韦德体育注册网5. [A] threatened [B] ignored [C] mocked [D] blamed

6. [A] punctuality [B] hospitality [C] competition [D] innovation

7. [A] Yes [B] So [C] Besides [D] Still

8. [A] hired [B] trained [C] rewarded [D] grouped

韦德体育注册网9. [A] only [B] rather [C] once [D] also

10. [A] comfort [B] revenue [C] efficiency [D] security

11. [A] friendly [B] quiet [C] cautious [D] diligent

韦德体育注册网12. [A] purpose [B] problem [C] prejudice [D] policy

韦德体育注册网13. [A] reported [B] revealed [C] admitted [D] noticed

14. [A] break [B] trip [C] departure [D] transfer

15. [A] moral [B] background [C] style [D] form

16. [A] interpret [B] criticize [C] sacrifice [D] tolerate

韦德体育注册网17. [A] task [B] secret [C] product [D] cost

韦德体育注册网18. [A] leading to [B] calling for [C] relating to [D] accounting for

19. [A] specify [B] predict [C] restore [D] create

韦德体育注册网20. [A] modify [B] review [C] present [D] achieve















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